Breast Cancer and AAIT
Current breast cancer treatment is essentially limited to surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Many of these treatments become unproductive in late stage breast cancer, primarily linked to impaired immune function of the patient. It is now common knowledge among scientists and physicians that three types of white blood cells can be activated by the immune system to destroy cancer cells: cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), natural killer cells (NKs), and natural killer T cells (NKTs). These cells are generally found circulating in the body in minimal amounts; however, they are a major front-line defense of our immune system. Over the past two decades, scientific studies have repeatedly demonstrated that breast cancer patients have abundantly lower levels of natural killer cells than healthy individuals.[1-3] Additionally, NK and NKT function is decreased in breast cancer patients, signifying that the immune system is severely impaired.[2-5] Research also indicates that progression of disease in breast cancer patients is associated with decreasing NK activity, and that individuals with an extensive family history of breast cancer had lower NK cell activity than those with a lower family history of breast cancer.[4,6] This undeniably suggests that defects in NK activity may indeed contribute to the onset of breast cancer. It is apparent breast cancer patients typically have low levels of interferon-gamma, a major growth factor for NK cells that is produced naturally by the body. Despite the impairments in NK and NKT cell number and function witnessed in cancer patients, these cells have been successfully expanded from patients, using advanced laboratory techniques, for purposes of immunotherapy.[3,5] Published literature from Stanford University, Mayo Clinic, and Harvard University has recently illustrated the significance of natural killer cells and natural killer T cells in patients stricken with cancer. Research has revealed that adoptive immunotherapy composed of NK cell infusions has the capacity to initiate clinical regressions in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, and leukemia. NK cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes have also been employed in breast cancer patients with clinical successes duly noted.[7,8] In patients with metastatic breast cancer, NK infusion was well-tolerated and resulted in complete response in 20% of patients. In 6 out of 16 patients infused with activated T lymphocytes, objective tumor regressions were recorded. Furthermore, the presence of activated NK cells and other tumor-fighting immune cells have been deemed to be key factors in the response of cancer patients to drugs such as thalidomide, Gleevec, and Paclitaxel.[11-13]
Breast Cancer Treatment Advantages with Customized AAIT Vaccine
- AAIT and NK cells that are activated, readily target macro and micro metastatic cancer cell sites directly.
- Envita's method also depletes immune system critical blockers such as T-regulatory cells that are typically found in excessively high numbers in patients with advanced cancers. T-regulatory cells halt your NK cells from killing cancer cells and they enhance the growth and spread of the disease. It is not uncommon to see elevated T-regulatory cells in breast cancer patients.
- AAIT and NK cells permit a patient to systematically treat the whole body with a singular targeted method.
1) Balch CM, Tilden AB, Dougherty PA, Cloud GA. Depressed levels of granular lymphocytes with natural killer (NK) cell function in 247 cancer patients. Ann Surg. 1983 Aug;198(2):192-9. 2) Konjevic G, Spuzic I. Evaluation of different effects of sera of breast cancer patients on the activity of natural killer cells. J Clin Lab Immunol. 1992;38(2):83-93. 3) Caras I, Grigorescu A, Stavaru C, Radu DL, Mogos I, Szegli G, Salageanu A. Evidence for immune defects in breast and lung cancer patients. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2004 Dec;53(12):1146-52. 4) Garner WL, Minton JP, James AG, Hoffmann CC. Human breast cancer and impaired NK cell function. J Surg Oncol. 1983 Sep;24(1):64-6. 5) Crough T, Purdie DM, Okai M, Maksoud A, Nieda M, Nicol AJ. Modulation of human Valpha24(+)Vbeta11(+) NKT cells by age, malignancy and conventional anticancer therapies. Br J Cancer. 2004 Nov 29;91(11):1880-6. 6) Strayer DR, Carter WA, Brodsky I. Familial occurrence of breast cancer is associated with reduced natural killer cytotoxicity. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1986;7(3):187-92. 7) deMagalhaes-Silverman M, Donnenberg A, Lembersky B, Elder E, Lister J, Rybka W, Whiteside T, Ball E. Posttransplant adoptive immunotherapy with activated natural killer cells in patients with metastatic breast cancer. J Immunother. 2000 Jan;23(1):154-60. 8) Bishop MR, Fowler DH, Marchigiani D, Castro K, Kasten-Sportes C, Steinberg SM, Gea-Banacloche JC, Dean R, Chow CK, Carter C, Read EJ, Leitman S, Gress R. Allogeneic lymphocytes induce tumor regression of advanced metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Oct 1;22(19):3886-92. 9) Hayashi T, Hideshima T, Akiyama M, Podar K, Yasui H, Raje N, Kumar S, Chauhan D, Treon SP, Richardson P, Anderson KC. Molecular mechanisms whereby immunomodulatory drugs activate natural killer cells: clinical application. Br J Haematol. 2005 Jan;128(2):192-203. 10) Borg C, Terme M, Taieb J, Menard C, Flament C, Robert C, Maruyama K, Wakasugi H, Angevin E, Thielemans K, Le Cesne A, Chung-Scott V, Lazar V, Tchou I, Crepineau F, Lemoine F, Bernard J, Fletcher JA, Turhan A, Blay JY, Spatz A, Emile JF, Heinrich MC, Mecheri S, Tursz T, Zitvogel L. Novel mode of action of c-kit tyrosine kinase inhibitors leading to NK cell-dependent antitumor effects. J Clin Invest. 2004 Aug;114(3):379-88. 11) Kubo M, Morisaki T, Matsumoto K, Tasaki A, Yamanaka N, Nakashima H, Kuroki H, Nakamura K, Nakamura M, Katano M. Paclitaxel probably enhances cytotoxicity of natural killer cells against breast carcinoma cells by increasing perforin production. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2005 May;54(5):468-76. Epub 2004 Dec 9.