AAIT and NK Cell importance in Lung Cancer
Over the past two decades, scientific studies have repeatedly shown that lung cancer patients have significantly lower levels of NK cells compared with numbers in healthy individuals.[1-6] NK cell dysfunction has also been described in these patients, including a significantly decreased capacity to kill tumor targets in laboratory tests.[1-5] An impaired response to interferon, a major growth factor for NK cells, has also been exhibited in lung cancer patients compared to those of healthy control subjects.1 Such defects have been observed in both the blood and the lungs of lung cancer patients.[1-6] Several research studies have additionally noted a correlation between decreased numbers and function of NK cells, with the severity of disease in lung cancer patients.[7-11] Decreased autologous tumor killing activity has been linked to increased disease stage and recurrence, while increased natural killer cell counts in lung cancer patients statistically correlates with the regulation of tumor progression and longer survival.[7-11] In a study of 287 lung cancer patients, those patients with no metastases (spread of disease) had significantly higher NK numbers than patients with distant metastases, further illustrating the role of NK cells in tumor surveillance. Additionally, a separate study of 60 lung cancer patients found that individuals with high NK cell activity exhibited significantly less tumor invasion into the pleural cavity.
The Important Role of Envita's AAIT NK Cell Therapy in Lung Cancer
- Can independently kill cancer cells and attack tumor.
- Directly impacts metastasis, working independently of chemotherapy and radiation.
- Improves outcomes when used in conjunction with targeted radiotherapy.
- Offers a treatment option, otherwise unmet for Lung Cancer Patients in conventional medicine.
1) Sibbitt WL Jr, Bankhurst AD, Jumonville AJ, Saiki JH, Saiers JH, Doberneck RC. Defects in natural killer cell activity and interferon response in human lung carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Cancer Res. 1984 Feb;44(2):852-6. 2) Weissler JC, Nicod LP, Toews GB. Pulmonary natural killer cell activity is reduced in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987 Jun;135(6):1353-7. 3) Anderson TM, Ibayashi Y, Holmes EC, Golub SH. Modification of natural killer activity of lymphocytes infiltrating human lung cancers. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1987;25(1):65-8. 4) deShazo RD, Moulder PV, Bozelka B, Chapman Y. Diminished natural killer-cell activity of interstitial pulmonary cell populations from patients with carcinoma of the lung. Chest. 1987 Jan;91(1):26-8. 5) LeFever AV, Funahashi A. Phenotype and function of natural killer cells in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. Cancer Res. 1991 Oct 15;51(20):5596-601. 6) Caras I, Grigorescu A, Stavaru C, Radu DL, Mogos I, Szegli G, Salageanu A. Evidence for immune defects in breast and lung cancer patients. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2004 Dec;53(12):1146-52. 7) Fujisawa T, Yamaguchi Y. Autologous tumor killing activity as a prognostic factor in primary resected nonsmall cell carcinoma of the lung. Cancer. 1997 Feb 1;79(3):474-81. 8) Takanami I, Takeuchi K, Giga M. The prognostic value of natural killer cell infiltration in resected pulmonary adenocarcinoma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2001 Jun;121(6):1058-63. 9) Nakamura H, Kawasaki N, Hagiwara M, Saito M, Konaka C, Kato H. Cellular immunologic parameters related to age, gender, and stage in lung cancer patients. Lung Cancer. 2000 May;28(2):139-45. 10) Lin CC, Kuo YC, Huang WC, Lin CY. Natural killer cell activity in lung cancer patients. Chest. 1987 Dec;92(6):1022-4. 11) Terazawa A, Tanaka N, Senou N, Inoue F, Matsuura H, Gouchi A, Fuchimoto S, Mimura H, Orita K. Natural killer activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes and its relation to histopathological factors of lung cancer. Jpn J Surg. 1987 Jul;17(4):236-42. 12) Motohashi S, Kobayashi S, Ito T, Magara KK, Mikuni O, Kamada N, Iizasa T, Nakayama T, Fujisawa T, Taniguchi M. Preserved IFN-alpha production of circulating Valpha24 NKT cells in primary lung cancer patients. Int J Cancer. 2002 Nov 10;102(2):159-65. 13) Konishi J, Yamazaki K, Yokouchi H, Shinagawa N, Iwabuchi K, Nishimura M. The characteristics of human NKT cells in lung cancer–CD1d independent cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells by NKT cells and decreased human NKT cell response in lung cancer patients. Hum Immunol. 2004 Nov;65(11):1377-88.