Prostate Cancer and AAIT

It is well-documented that cancer patients generally have relatively anemic immune system function. An array of research studies have illustrated with specification that NK cells in prostate cancer patients are depressed in function.[1-5] NKs from these referenced patients have difficulty battling tumor cells in laboratory assays, and their destructive capacity decreases as disease progresses.[1-4] In contrast, in prostate cancer patients who had experienced partial remissions or disease stabilization, NK activity was essentially restored to normal function.6 A suppression of function is also witnessed in NKT cells in prostate cancer patients.[7,8] NKT cells can function as NK cells and as lymphocytes, meaning that they can obliterate tumor cells and regulate the function of other immune cells. Depressed NKT function impacts the entire immune system, not just those specific cells. Research has revealed that NKT cells isolated from patients with advanced prostate cancer produce abnormally low levels of interferon-gamma, a primary growth factor for NKs and NKTs.[7] This low interferon-gamma production impairs the ability of NK and NKT cells to effectively coordinate immune responses against the disease.[7]

Although NKs and NKTs are suppressed in prostate cancer patients, it has been advised that these and other cancer fighting cells can admittedly be isolated from stricken patients, then expanded and activated outside the body.9-12 These expanded cells illustrate potent antitumor activity against prostate cancer cells in laboratory studies.[9-12] NK cells and T lymphocytes have been demonstrated to target prostate tumors in mice, resulting in either partial or complete regression of tumor in these animals.[13,14]

Envita's AAIT offers a more direct tumor kill and anti-metastatic treatment than myriad other immunotherapies. This coming generation technology allows patients a treatment that provides heretofore inadequate needs that are not found in radiotherapy and chemotherapy or other immunotherapy methods alone.


1) Schwemmer B, Lehmer A, Hofmann R, Braun J. Natural killer cell activity in patients with prostatic carcinoma and its in vivo boosting with bacillus Calmette-Guerin. Urol Int. 1984;39(6):321-6.

2) Choe BK, Frost P, Morrison MK, Rose NR. Natural killer cell activity of prostatic cancer patients. Cancer Invest. 1987;5(4):285-91.

3) Lahat N, Alexander B, Levin DR, Moskovitz B. The relationship between clinical stage, natural killer activity and related immunological parameters in adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1989;28(3):208-12.

4) Marumo K, Ikeuchi K, Baba S, Ueno M, Tazaki H. Natural killer cell activity and recycling capacity of natural killer cells in patients with carcinoma of the prostate. Keio J Med. 1989 Mar;38(1):27-35.

5) Healy CG, Simons JW, Carducci MA, DeWeese TL, Bartkowski M, Tong KP, Bolton WE. Impaired expression and function of signal-transducing zeta chains in peripheral T cells and natural killer cells in patients with prostate cancer. Cytometry. 1998 Jun 1;32(2):109-19.

6) Kastelan M, Kraljic I, Tarle M. NK cell activity in treated prostate cancer patients as a probe for circulating tumor cells: hormone regulatory effects in vivo. Prostate. 1992;21(2):111-20.

7) Tahir SM, Cheng O, Shaulov A, Koezuka Y, Bubley GJ, Wilson SB, Balk SP, Exley MA. Loss of IFN-gamma production by invariant NK T cells in advanced cancer. J Immunol. 2001 Oct 1;167(7):4046-50.

8) Schwemmer B. Natural killer T cells in patients with prostatic carcinoma. Urol Int. 2003;71(2):146-9.

9) Oikawa T, Kawai K, Ishiwata I, Ohno T, Akaza H. Induction of potent antitumour natural-killer cells from peripheral blood of patients with advanced prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2003 Dec;92(9):1009-15.

10) Wajchman HJ, Pierce CW, Varma VA, Issa MM, Petros J, Dombrowski KE. Ex vivo expansion of CD8+CD56+ and CD8+CD56- natural killer T cells specific for MUC1 mucin. Cancer Res. 2004 Feb 1;64(3):1171-80.

11) Liu Z, Guo BL, Gehrs BC, Nan L, Lopez RD. Ex vivo expanded human Vgamma9Vdelta2+ gammadelta-T cells mediate innate antitumor activity against human prostate cancer cells in vitro. J Urol. 2005 May;173(5):1552-6.

12) Wu JD, Higgins LM, Steinle A, Cosman D, Haugk K, Plymate SR. Prevalent expression of the immunostimulatory MHC class I chain-related molecule is counteracted by shedding in prostate cancer. J Clin Invest. 2004 Aug;114(4):560-8.

13) Pinthus JH, Waks T, Malina V, Kaufman-Francis K, Harmelin A, Aizenberg I, Kanety H, Ramon J, Eshhar Z. Adoptive immunotherapy of prostate cancer bone lesions using redirected effector lymphocytes. J Clin Invest. 2004 Dec;114(12):1774-81.

14) Smyth MJ, Taniguchi M, Street SE. The anti-tumor activity of IL-12: mechanisms of innate immunity that are model and dose dependent. J Immunol. 2000 Sep 1;165(5):2665-70.

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Welcome to Envita's Biologics Division! Our AAIT method is the latest in our line of cancer and immunotherapy treatments and in comparison to immunotherapy options that are currently available in United States as well as abroad, it boasts a significant level of tumor kill without having to resort to biopsy. AAIT can be used in addition to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or delivered intra-operatively. It's very important to note that AAIT can also be utilized completely independent of chemotherapy and radiation because it leverages a completely different mechanism of tumor kill. If you have any questions or would like to speak to our clinicians directly, please send us an email. To learn more about how you or your institution can become part of our Envita Mexico team, please don't hesitate to contact us.

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